Exploration of Asia During the Early Middle Ages , geographical knowledge in Europe regressed though it is a popular misconception that they thought the world was flat , and the simple T and O map became the standard depiction of the world. The trips of Venetian explorer Marco Polo throughout Mongol Empire in the 13th century, the Christian Crusades of the 12th and 13th centuries, and the Portuguese and Spanish voyages of exploration during the 15th and 16th centuries opened up new horizons and stimulated geographic writings. The Mongols also had wide-ranging knowledge of the geography of Europe and Asia, based in their governance and ruling of much of this area and used this information for the undertaking of large military expeditions. The evidence for this is found in historical resources such as The Secret History of Mongols and other Persian chronicles written in 13th and 14th centuries. For example, during the rule of the Great Yuan Dynasty a world map was created and is currently kept in South Korea. Maps of the Yuan Dynasty During the 15th century, Henry the Navigator of Portugal supported explorations of the African coast and became a leader in the promotion of geographic studies. Among the most notable accounts of voyages and discoveries published during the 16th century were those by Giambattista Ramusio in Venice, by Richard Hakluyt in England, and by Theodore de Bry in what is now Belgium. Early modern period[ edit ] Tabula Hungariae , Ingolstadt , – the earliest surviving printed map of the Kingdom of Hungary.
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Punjab comes from the Persian words panj five and ab river and means “Land of the Five Rivers. The Punjab is an ancient center of culture in the Indian subcontinent. It lay within the bounds of the Harappan civilization, the sophisticated urban city-based culture that flowered in the Indus Valley during the third millennium BC. Harappa, one of the two great cities of this civilization, was located on the Ravi River in what is now Pakistan’s Punjab Province.
The Punjab has also been one of the great crossroads of southern Asian history. Nomadic tribes speaking Indo-European languages descended from the mountain passes in the northwest to settle on the plains of the Punjab around BC.
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History of geography
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In the extant Old Persian OP texts, there is no word that is an equivalent to satrapy with regard to both etymology and meaning. In the OP inscriptions dahyu- pl. The satrapies formed a system which made it possible to rule over the whole Achaemenid territory, to raise and forward taxes, to recruit military forces, and to control local bureaucracies. Dealing with crises and uprisings was also the responsibility of satraps, as was defense against external threats.
In order to guarantee control over an empire which expanded rapidly between and BCE, Cyrus the Great r. These structures in turn determined the hierarchical construction of the satrapal system which, remaining essentially unchanged, proved a successful instrument of administration throughout the entire Achaemenid period. To these sources are to be added several hundred passages in Greek and Latin literature, as well as sporadic information in inscriptions e.
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Etymology[ edit ] The region was originally called Sapta Sindhu ,  the Vedic land of the seven rivers flowing into the ocean. Of the five great rivers of Punjab, four course through Pakistan’s Punjab province. History of Punjab Due to its location, the Punjab region came under constant attack and witnessed centuries of foreign invasions by the Persians , Greeks , Kushans , Scythians , Turks and Afghans. The northwestern part of South Asia , including Punjab, was repeatedly invaded or conquered by various foreign empires, including those of Tamerlane , Alexander the Great , and Genghis Khan.
Ancient history[ edit ] Location of Punjab, Pakistan and the extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation sites in and around it Soanian culture first flourished in the soan valley of northern Punjab.
Punjabis derive their name from a geographical, historical, and cultural region located in the northwest of the Indian sub-continent. Punjab comes from the Persian words panj (five) and ab (river) and means “Land of the Five Rivers.” It was the name used for the lands to the east of the Indus River that are drained by its five tributaries (the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas, and Sutlej).
Mankiala Stupa Existence of the Soanian culture finds its home on the plateau. The Indus Valley civilization is known to have flourished in the same region between the 23rd and 18th centuries BC. Some of the earliest Stone Age artifacts in the world have been found on the plateau, dating from , to , years.
The crude stone recovered from the terraces of the Soan carry the account of human grind and endeavors in this part of the world from the inter-glacial period. The Stone Age people produced their equipment in a sufficiently homogenous way to justify their grouping. Around BC , small village communities developed in the area, which led to the early roots of civilization. Rawalpindi Gazetteer see also Baburnama. This clan now live all over the region and famous villages are Samote, Sagri, Manyanda, Sakrana, Bishandoot, etc.
The ruins of the Shahi destroyed by Mahmud of Ghazni in the 11th century and of ancient Gandhara destroyed in the 6th century by the Hunas Indo-Hephthalites litter the countryside. Taxila then called taksh-shila was Hindu and Buddhist seat of learning, connected across the Khunjerab pass to the Silk Road, attracting students from all over the world.
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The Pothohar Plateau (Punjabi: پوٹھوار , Urdu: سطح مرتفع پوٹھوہار ; alternatively spelled Potohar or Potwar) is a plateau in north-eastern Pakistan, forming the northern part of borders the western parts of Azad Kashmir and the southern part of Khyber region was once the home of the ancient Soanian culture, which is evidenced by the.
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Roy Larner is out of intensive care. Friends of the year-old today revealed he has been moved to the ward at St Thomas’ Hospital, London. The father-of-one had surgery on Sunday after he tried to fight off terrorists when they attacked revellers on Saturday night. Friend Kevin Downey, who uploaded a picture of Roy in hospital, said doctors had inserted tubes into lungs because they were filling with blood.
They’ve told him about 10 days. Pictured in bed the father-of-one shows off his battle wounds where he was stabbed five times by the terrorists on Saturday night. Archie Webber-Brown set up a petition for Roy to be awarded to George Cross for his bravery when he tried to take on the knife-wielding extremists. The year-old, whose dad Jason has been best friends with Roy for decades, said:
The country was finally annexed and dissolved at the end of the Second Anglo-Sikh War in into separate princely states and the British province of Punjab. Eventually, a Lieutenant Governorship was formed in Lahore as a direct representative of the British Crown. Partition of Punjab[ edit ] The Punjab region , with its rivers. The land of the Punjabi People The independence of India and Pakistan, and the subsequent partition of Punjab, is considered by historians to be the beginning of the end of the British Empire.
However, the growth of Muslim nationalism led to the All India Muslim League becoming the dominant party in the elections.
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Islamic State The London Bridge ringleader was arrested by police earlier this year after he attacked an anti-extremist Islamic scholar – but he was let off with a caution. Khuram Butt was reported to counter-terrorism officers in the wake of the incident. However they concluded he did not pose a threat. Six months later, Butt, 27, went on the rampage through London Bridge and Borough market, massacring seven innocent people. MI5 and counter-terrorism police have admitted Butt was known to them since but they considered him a low priority.
Butt had been reported to the anti-terror authorities on numerous occasions and even posed for a television documentary in front of the black flag of the so-called Islamic State. Khuram Butt in police mugshot taken after his arrest In one photograph taken in May – a year after being put on the MI5 watch list as a possible jihadi terrorist – he was pictured inside a train tunnel in an orange high-visibility jacket. Nobody at London Underground appears to have been aware of the possible threat he posed when giving him the job.
It is understood he was sacked after six months in October for repeatedly failing to show up for work.
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Share shares A Punjab police spokeswoman said police would follow legal procedure to make mother and sister part of inquiry. Mohammad Arif, lawyer of Shahid and Shakeel, said that it was not easy to get Samia’s mother and sister extradited from UK. It will take a lot of time,’ he said.
Etymology. The region was originally called Sapta Sindhu, the Vedic land of the seven rivers flowing into the ocean. The Sanskrit name for the region, as mentioned in the Ramayana and Mahabharata for example, was Panchanada which means “Land of the Five Rivers”, and was translated to Persian as Punjab after the Muslim conquests. The region was known to the Greeks as Pentapotamia, meaning .
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