Attitudes[ edit ] A definite and conclusive credo was never formulated in Judaism; the very question whether it contains any equivalent of dogma is a matter of intense scholarly controversy. Some researchers attempted to argue that the importance of daily practice and punctilious adherence to Jewish Law Halakha relegated theoretical issues to an ancillary status. Others dismissed this view entirely, citing the many debates in ancient rabbinic sources which castigated various heresies without any reference to observance. However, while lacking a uniform doctrine, Orthodox Judaism is basically united in affirming several core beliefs, disavowal of which is considered major blasphemy. As in other aspects, Orthodox positions reflect the mainstream of traditional Rabbinic Judaism through the ages. Attempts to codify these were undertaken by several medieval authorities, including Saadia Gaon and Joseph Albo.
What happened to the big Jewish delis in Chicago?
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From crypto-Zionist left-Bolshevism and right-Neoconservatism in the Diaspora, through naked Jewish national socialism in Israel, Judeo supremacist (Zionist) movements have murdered and terrorized millions in pursuit of a messianic, “Chosen Race” agenda.
Although Jews originally came from the Middle East, many races and peoples have mixed together in Jewish communities over the centuries, especially after the Jews were forced out of Palestine in the second century C. What binds the group together is a common Jewish heritage as passed down from generation to generation. For many Jews, the binding force is Judaism, a term usually referring to the Jewish religion but sometimes used to refer to all Jews.
There are, however, Jewish atheists and agnostics, and one does not have to be religious to be Jewish. In general, one is Jewish if born of a Jewish mother or if he or she converts to Judaism. Most Jews consider the State of Israel the Jewish homeland. Located in the Middle East with a land mass of 7, square miles, Israel is only slighter larger than New Jersey. It is bounded by Lebanon in the north, by Syria and Jordan in the east, by Egypt in the southwest, and by the Mediterranean Sea in the west.
With a population of approximately 4. However, not all Jews consider Israel home. Some feel the United States, with 5. Accounting for more than three-fourths of the world Jewry, Israel and the United States represent the two major Jewish population regions. Although Jews comprise less than three percent of the American population, Jews have generally had a disproportionately larger representation in American government, business, academia, and entertainment.
American Jews have suffered their share of setbacks and have had to combat anti-Semitism during the early twentieth century.
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Abstracts and Summaries Part 1: Jewish Populations Last Update: Genetic Testing Service Get genetically tested to discover your relationship to other families, other Jews, and other ethnic groups. Pulver, Stephen Wooding, and Stephen T. Among the comparative populations were continental Europeans and European-Americans. Also used for comparison were 3 Middle Eastern populations: Palestinian Arabs, Druze, and Bedouins.
Here we analyzed a large AJ cohort and found higher linkage disequilibrium LD and identity-by-descent relative to Europeans, as expected for an isolate. However, paradoxically we also found higher genetic diversity, a sign of an older or more admixed population but not of a long-term isolate. Recent reports have reaffirmed that the AJ population has a common Middle Eastern origin with other Jewish Diaspora populations, but also suggest that the AJ population, compared with other Jews, has had the most European admixture.
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History[ edit ] In the 18th century, as interest in the “curiosities” of the Jewish religion rose, some non-Jews had models of synagogues erected, furnished with a full array of Jewish books and ceremonial objects, and accessible to a broad public, constituting the world’s first “Jewish museums. The Jewish tradition generally places a high value on learning and study, especially of religious texts.
Torah study study of the Torah and more broadly of the entire Hebrew Bible as well as Rabbinic literature such as the Talmud and Midrash is considered a religious obligation. Since the Renaissance and the growth of higher education , many people, including people not of the Jewish faith, have chosen to study Jews and Judaism as a means of understanding the Jewish religion, heritage, and Jewish history. Religious instruction specifically for Jews, especially for those who wish to join the rabbinate , is taught at Jewish seminaries and in Orthodox Judaism , yeshivas.
For the majority of Jewish students attending regular academic colleges and universities there is a growing choice of Jewish studies courses and even degrees available at many institutions.
Jewish studies (or Judaic studies) is an academic discipline centered on the study of Jews and studies is interdisciplinary and combines aspects of history (especially Jewish history), Middle Eastern studies, Asian studies, Oriental studies, religious studies, archeology, sociology, languages (Jewish languages), political science, area studies, women’s studies, and ethnic studies.
A new era of education The great challenge of education is to examine existing paradigms and dream of new ones. In recent decades, traditional notions about where and how people learn have been re-examined, and new and sometimes unlikely milieus and modes are emerging as contexts for education. The new settings join the traditional venues of education— elementary schools, secondary schools, and universities—as vibrant partners in the process of education, and sometimes they even challenge traditional hegemonies.
An extensive literature describes youth movements, community centers, adult learning, and other vehicles for informal education across the globe, in Eastern Europe, Africa, England, and Latin America, as well as in the United States and Canada. Informal education has been a factor in Jewish life for many decades. The network of camps, youth movements, and community centers is sizable. We may well be in an era of the emergence of informal education as a seminal force in Jewish life.
Informal Jewish education is usually juxtaposed with formal Jewish education. Throughout the ages, the Jewish community has devoted much energy to the establishment and maintenance of a rich educational network. However, schools were not the only contexts in which Jewish education took place. It included the neighborhood, the home, communal agencies, and the synagogue; celebrations and holidays, group experiences, mentors, and the daily and yearly calendar.
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It is a great Jewish legacy that I am excited to make better known. Immediately, the story had her hooked. Kempner felt Rosenwald embodied the Jewish values of tikkun olam repairing the world and tzedakah charity. He went into the clothing trade with his family and ended up in Chicago, where he had an opportunity to become a partner with Richard Sears in He proved an excellent manager, helping to make Sears the largest retailer in the country.
the philosophy of informal jewish education Barry Chazan explores the meaning of informal Jewish education and examines its significance for contemporary Jewish life.
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Circumcision was enjoined by God upon Abraham and his descendants Gn. The generation born in the wilderness, however, was not circumcised, an omission repaired by Joshua Jos. Many Hellenistic Jews, particularly those who participated in athletics at the gymnasium, had an operation performed to conceal the fact of their circumcision I Me. Similar action was taken during the Hadrianic persecution, in which period a prohibition against circumcision was issued.
It was probably in order to prevent the possibility of obliterating the traces of circumcision that the rabbis added to the requirement of cutting the foreskin that of peri’ah laying bare the glans. To this was added a third requirement, metsitsah sucking of the blood.
We highlight the successes and developments of the Jewish community by including a particular focus on Jewish leaders – or, Jewish Insiders, as we call them –.
We were to offer our seats to ladies and the elderly on streetcars. Gentlemen were to tip their hats, and to remove them in elevators. We were to hold doors for ladies, the elderly and the infirm. And we were taught to shake hands. Grasp the hand, but do not crush it. And not like a dead fish. When one gentleman met another, regardless of whether they knew each other, they were to shake hands. We were taught that a gentleman did not shake hands with a lady, unless she extended her hand first.
And then we learned that these rules did not apply in the world of traditional Jewry. People of the opposite gender do not even touch each otherThe practice of the traditional Jew is different.
A further 50, or so Canadians report being Jewish by ethnic origin but identified with another religion. Toronto is today a major Torah city, with lots of outreach as well. Montreal is vibrant, and possibly the easiest city in North America in which to do kiruv, even as the population sees continued losses to Toronto.
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Dov Zakheim, a former Pentagon official who also served as a foreign policy advisor on the Romney presidential campaign, tells us: He represents a very different kind of Republicanism. And in a sense, he could be the old kind of standard-bearer. So, you know, on foreign policy or on domestic policy. He will go his own way and I think he will find that there are a lot of Republicans who follow him. He will support conservative reform just like he did as Governor, and work with whomever best helps enact an agenda consistent with Utah values.
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She lives with her family in Chicago, and has lectured internationally on Jewish topics. Her book Angels at the table: It has been praised as “life-changing”, a modern classic, and used in classes and discussion groups around the world. The opinions expressed in the comment section are the personal views of the commenters. Comments are moderated, so please keep it civil.
Jews successfully established themselves in the garment trades and in the needle unions in New York. By the s they were a major political factor in New York, with strong support for the most liberal programs of the New Deal. By the mid s, however, the Black Power movement caused a growing separation between blacks and Jews, though both groups remained solidly in the Democratic camp. Many Jews rose to leadership positions in the early 20th century American labor movement and helped to found unions that played a major role in left wing politics and, after , in Democratic Party politics.
Roosevelt , American Jews voted more solidly Democratic. In the election of , Jewish support for Democrat Harry S. In the th Congress, there are 10 Jews  among U. Representatives at the start of the th Congress;  26 Democrats and one Eric Cantor Republican. The total number of Jews serving in the House of Representatives declined from 31 in the th Congress. He served as Majority Leader until , when he resigned shortly after his loss in the Republican primary election for his House seat.
Participation in civil rights movements[ edit ] Members of the American Jewish community have included prominent participants in civil rights movements. In the mid th century, there were American Jews who were among the most active participants in the Civil Rights Movement and feminist movements. A number of American Jews have also been active figures in the struggle for gay rights in America. Joachim Prinz , president of the American Jewish Congress , stated the following when he spoke from the podium at the Lincoln Memorial during the famous March on Washington on August 28,
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Her teaching experience ranges from corralling four-year-olds into baking challah to herding teenagers on Jewish wilderness treks to discussing Jewish environmental activism with senior citizens. At Macalester College, where she completed her B. Rabbi Cohen calls the San Francisco Bay Area home but has spent enough of her life in diaspora to feel quite comfy on the east coast.
Long after her bat mitzvah, while in college, she reclaimed her Jewish identity, discovering Judaism and the Jewish community as a portable home that held her, pushed her to grow, and inspired her to pursue justice. During rabbinical school, Sam and Keilah were blessed with two children, Meir and Della. They have been devoted members of IKAR for six years.
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